IPv4 addressing scheme has some major limitations and they are: • Limited space and The IPv4 specifies a 32 bits (4,294,967,296 possible addressable nodes) address field and these address field is rapidly running out. • Lack of security To overcome the above limitations they implemented the IPv6 and the IPv6 specifies a 128 bits (~3.4*1038 […]


What is Steganography? Steganography is the art or practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video. The word steganography combines the Ancient Greek words steganos – meaning “covered, concealed, or protected”, and graphein – meaning “writing”. Motivation And Goal: Motivation: • Protection of Digital Media • Privacy […]


Netcat(nc) is helpful to open TCP connections, send UDP packets, listen on arbitrary TCP and UDP ports, scanning of ports .This part of the blog is dedicated to Linux and Unix-like commands that can be used from Information Security Administrators and Penetration Testers. 1.To Bind Shell: nc –lvp -e – Running in windows box nc–v […]


What is Firewall…? Firewall is a device or software that acts as a filter and analyses the incoming and outgoing traffic (packets). Why Firewall..? Firewall is used to block the malicious traffic which is coming into the network; actually firewall is to safeguard the internal network from external malicious traffic. It helps to screen out […]

Why Ncat..?

Netcat: Netcat is a network communication utility used to read and write information using TCP or UDP protocols. Netcat is a powerful utility; which Read and Write data across TCP and UDP networkConnections. It can be used for port scanning, a backdoor, a port listener, banner grabbing and it is used for many other purposes […]


Cryptography is the process of converting recognizable data into an unreadable code and then decrypting it and sent across a network (either trusted or untrusted). Data is encrypted at the source, i.e. sender’s end and decrypted at the destination, i.e. receiver’s end. In all cases, the initial unencrypted data is referred to as plain text […]

How to access an internal network services from external network

Providing security is the very important thing in today’s real world. Because many popular protocols deployed in the Internet today are designed in the earlier stages, so Security, Data confidentiality, Integrity, Encryptions and Data transmissions arethe biggest issues. Example HTTP, SSH, telnet and FTP, These protocols are not secure because they are cleartext protocol; these […]